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Landscape Architecture

If you ask searching for an answer to this question, many sources of information, including the Internet, you will begin to find the best in the regular (aka – the French, he – formal) and landscape (aka – English, natural, free, natural). Filed under: Craig Pirrong. But often to the title of "style" yet added: Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Ukrainian, Mediterranean, Russian, eastern, rural, and so on. Let's see how many of them exist on In fact, and whether they are at all styles. To begin with we define the notion of "style". Style – a general cultural notion that is based on the entire paradigm of the knowledge era, and determines all that was characteristic of the era – the people lived, what they looked like as thought, which perceived the world that read, some listened to music, composed some poems, what they ate, what clothes to wear. And of course, what kind of environment inhabited, as shaped the worldview that embodied in the space, town planning, buildings, structures, interiors and gardens – transformed the natural environment. History of landscape art shows just how closely it was closely related to other arts – architecture, painting, sculpture, as well as with literature, subject to the requirements of the social system and adapting to nature. In the gardening art is embodied to achieve Plant (ornamental horticulture, plant breeding, introduction), architectural and engineering skills (construction, irrigation, etc.). These findings were fixed in a variety of techniques that are systematized, canonized, elevated to aesthetic and technological principles.

Teverga Paintings

The Park of the prehistory of Teverga is quintessential ancient pinacoteca, houses the most important collection of rock art in Europe between 10,000 and 40,000 years old. Visit him we get a very broad from the Paleolithic, and during the two hours that, approximately, we can calculate our visit, we will go as far as possible to the details of everyday life of primitive man, empatizando with its harsh reality, sharing your way of seeing the world. In Teverga find that ideal space that begin to interpret more rigorously the cultural treasure of our origins, mainly his paintings. Located 40 kilometers from Oviedo, in the locality of San Salvador de Alesga (Teverga), the Park of prehistory is the largest set of replicas of this exciting stage of humanity, with exact copies of the main European sites of parietal painting and Art mobilier, selected according to rigorous scientific and ready criteria through reproductions facsimilares, copies, recreations, photographs, models and reconstructions. Replicas, very reliable to the originals, are organized according to an enjoyable and didactic proposal. The actual Museum facility consists of a complex of three buildings.

The first hosts the center of reception and cafeteria. After a short walk and crossing the Moor River on a new bridge, we see another property in the shape of Crescent Moon with vegetation cover, call Gallery. After the dramatic entrance with a circular skylight open to the sky, the visitor delves into an interior of a few thousand square meters. Inside we find a complete circuit of audioisuales, documents, and reproductions of paintings and engravings of the Upper Paleolithic, as the panel of horses from Chauvet or Lascaux, both in France; black cow the central part of the roof of the bisons of Altamira (the authors of the replica are the same as the neocave installed at the Museum of Altamira and worked for more than two years to get one exact paintings reproduction), the camarin of the Hinds of Covalanas (Cantabria), the grotto of the bears of Ekain (Basque country), the bison of La Covaciella in Cabrales (Asturias), the panel of the signs of the cave of Llonin in Penamellera Alta (Asturias), as well as tooling and figures from Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic or Russia. The location of the park itself, in a valley of great ecological and landscape value, just without traces of human activity in the vicinity, and with the underground buildings, completely camouflaged with the environment, makes us the closest men of the caves. There are 25 hectares of Virgin surface, at the foot of the impressive Pena Sobia, in the Natural Park of the Ubinas.


Moving away from the medieval canons with their schematic, they have to portray people in more natural against the background of real landscapes and interiors. By Tommaso Masaccio 1424 adorned with beautiful frescoes of the church in Florence. In the same period, Filippo Brunelleschi built the magnificent architecture of the building. Among his masterpieces owned by the Pazzi Chapel in Florence. The ability to combine several different Occupation characteristic for the creators of the Renaissance. Michelangelo Buonarroti famous primarily as a sculptor, author of the famous sculpture "Pieta", but he was also a painter, and so, and even supervised the construction of St. Peter's in Rome in 1547.

But the most versatile differed by Leonardo da Vinci, which became the epitome of the humanist ideal of fully developed man. Leonardo was not only a brilliant artist created great paintings, the architect and sculptor, he had a tremendous knowledge and has made important discoveries in mathematics, science, and mechanics. Among the most celebrated figures of the Renaissance owned and artists Giotto, Botticelli and Raphael, Donatello and Ghiberti sculptor, architect Bramante. New developments in Italy and swept the rest of Europe. Universities in Oxford, Cambridge and Paris became centers of ideas Renaissance. They helped the spread of such thinkers as Erasmus and Thomas More, who tried to revise some of the religious dogma and to reform the Church.

The head of the "Northern humanists," Erasmus raised man above the church – for the time it was a bold idea. In the Netherlands, Germany and the ideals of the Renaissance were picked up by such artists as Van Eyck, Durer and Holbein, developed a special northern style of painting. In England Shakespeare and Spencer made a revolution in poetry and the performing arts. In 1600 Marie de Medici when she married the French king Henri IV, had brought with him to Paris of Italian craftsmen, painters and sculptors that further contributed to the spread of a new culture in Europe. Renaissance – a new stage in the culture, the transition to a new culture of time, which is characterized by reliance on an antique aesthetic. George Vasari coined the term "Renaissance." 1. This new way of thinking and belief, a special spiritual way of life and behavior. 2. This is a prime example of overall cultural reorientation. 3. The basis of culture of the Renaissance was the search for human identity. 4. Aesthetic and ethical Renaissance ideal – an image of a free universal creative person who creates himself. Circle of Humana studia – Renaissance humanism. Humanists refuse to scholastic learning sciences. Art is perceived and examined through the prism of science. 5. Manifesto of the Renaissance was a treatise Giovanni Pico della Miradolla "It is about human dignity." The man himself has to define its place in the world, or to rise above nature through their abilities, or reduced to an animal. The main idea of the Renaissance = a statement of grandeur and beauty of man. Thus, the overall conclusion of the humanists of the era was the recognition of endless human capabilities in improving themselves and the world.


The city finally moved toward the shores of port Carenas, known today as Bay of Havana, but the village of fishermen remained in that place and from there took the city water that was consumed by its inhabitants. The Chorrera or old town, thus him called to the habanero West settlement. Threats and attacks by pirates and privateers did he Cabildo in Havana in 1565 agreed and sent that from that date in the forward closed roads ranging to La Chorrera and those who leave the beach going to old town and no one would dare open them or make other roads and trails in the area in order to prevent Privateers and pirates could enter in Havana from la caletaas they had already done. Who did was exposed to a fine of 50 pesos to war costs, and if you didn’t, be imposed a penalty of one hundred lashes. All this in order to make these places increasingly inhospitable to aggressors of Havana in its effort to advance on the city. In summary, it was forbidden reside, open roads, and establishing crops and pastures in the area. Hence comes the name of the zone.

Time, since then, mitigated the rigour of the prohibitions and gradually appeared stays for livestock and, although to a lesser extent, water continued bringing in botijas from the Almendares. In 1646, pirate attacks forced the Governor alvaro de Luna to have the construction of the La Chorrera castillito at the mouth of the River. In the area, since the middle of the previous century, there were several sugar mills and its dense forests wood was extracted. And already in the 17TH century began the exploitation of numerous quarries were present in the area and that supplied the stone for the Havana buildings. For many years in the area alone were some poor houses built by workers from these quarries and some few fishermen who dwelled there taking advantage of its proximity to the sea of the place.

Ivan Illich

That befall if an uncritical acceptance of what decided in these powerful forums. Autarquizantes dismissed suggestions hypothesis, the road remains a critical adaptation schemes based on sovereign respect endogenous cultural idiosyncrasies of the majority of Argentina in accelerating the process of "Latinoamerizanizacion." The adoption acriticaa and almost cartoonish in the past dela called "American way of life" (There were even many sectors in the country of origin took distance from it), it sustained some previous pautasa cultural and consumption, Paris or London bias, particularly by the so-called middle class, was the one that generated a large period of "capitalization", which has become more vulnerable to the new global situation. In our developments on this issue, first incorporated as an ingredient in the energy matrix (including transport and communications), traction-blooded animal. He was most recently the possibilities of the human blood-drive, with emphasis on cycling, which motif was already eyeing the 1973 oil crisis, by Ivan Illich. See more detailed opinions by reading what Western Union offers on the topic.. In previous report we referred to the fate of popular engineering, resilient responses involving so-called "cardboard" a Buenos Aires metropolitan area. But what motivates us to this communication, is the recent presentation by a student of Chinese origin, whose video was circulated on the Internet, a development that dark synthesis consists of the following: We have designed a bicycle with a battery that is powered by energy from the physical effort of which transmits its power through the pedals. This is transmitted to the wheel and one of them triggers the accumulator. The entire process is monitored by a mini computer.

University Culture

In the present document we relate some item that we judge excellent to be mentioned to the ingressantes in the university system, in what it says respect to the study methodology to be adoptee, for a good accompaniment they give set of the chairs or you discipline to be attended a course. We find important to present a document to them in this direction, in view of the difference of the requirements of study of the university pupil compared with those making to the secundarista pupil. It is clearly that they are only general lines that we wait serve to assist them in the course that they had chosen and for which had been seleccionados between many. Perhaps check out Hikmet Ersek for more information. The importance of each item will go in accordance with to vary the personality of the student and the nature of the subject to be studied. The basic aspect is that the study in the university it is an extremely serious enterprise, which involves much more that simply to execute the requested works regularly. One expects that a university student dedicates part significant of its time and energy to the studies and activities directamente related they. The lessons do not costumam to deplete all exhaustingly the subjects, but the basic concepts intend to display the pupils, with the objectivo to facilitate the posterior individual study.

In such a way, the attendance to the lessons must necessarily be complemented by individual study. Although the student has responsibility on its study, she will always have aid for that have greaters difficulties. The professors of the course are to the disposal to argue difficulties with regard to any aspect of the acadmica life. 1. HISTORY OF the SPROUTING OF the MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITIES the universities had had a material cause: the increase of the volume of knowing human being, throughout century XI; a formal cause: development of the spirit of corporation with the purpose to defend common interests.